Lawrence Doolittle (LBNL)
When designing a downconverting RF measurement system, there is a perennial tradeoff choosing the signal level at the mixer. Too low, and Johnson noise at its output limits the precision of the measurement. Too high, and distortion generated in the mixer (characterized by its IP3) causes systematic errors in the measurement. Superimposing calibration tones (also known as pilot tones) on the...
Dr Krzysztof Czuba (ISE, Warsaw University of Technology)
One of the most important requirements for the European XFEL RF system is to assure a very precise RF field stability within the accelerating cavities. The required amplitude and phase stability equals respectively dA/A <3E-5, dphi<0.01 deg @ 1.3GHz in the injector and dA/A<1E-3, dphi <0.1 deg @1.3GHz in the main LINAC section. Fulfilling such requirements for the 3.4 km long facility is a...